Clinical Neuroscience

Hypertension definition journal article. EUR-Lex - R - EUR-Lex

Received Sep 22; Accepted Dec Copyright © Baán et al.

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Abstract Background Myostatin Mstn is a key regulator of heart metabolism and cardiomyocyte growth interacting tightly with insulin-like growth factor I IGF-I under physiological conditions. The pathological role of Mstn has also been suggested since Mstn protein was shown to be upregulated in the myocardium of end-stage heart failure.

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However, no data are available about the regulation of gene expression of Mstn and IGF-I in different regions of healthy or pathologic human hearts, although they both might play a crucial role in the pathomechanism of heart failure. Methods In the present study, heart samples were collected from left ventricles, septum and right ventricles of control healthy individuals as well as from failing hearts of dilated DCM or ischemic cardiomyopathic ICM patients.

Moreover, we combined the measured transcript levels and created complex parameters characterizing either Mstn- or IGF-I signaling in the different regions of healthy or failing hearts.

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Moreover, we identified Mstn as a massively regulated gene in DCM but not in ICM as part of possible compensatory mechanisms in the failing heart.

Based on the analysis of constitutive Mstn knockout mice, numerous studies have demonstrated that Mstn inhibits cardiac growth and contractility and induces fibrosis [ 3 - 6 ]. Nevertheless, by analyzing magas vérnyomás renin kezelés cardiac-specific Mstn mutants we have revealed recently hypertension definition journal article beneficial role of Mstn in maintaining cardiac energy homeostasis and preventing pathological cardiac hypertrophy [ 7 ].

BDMM onset time dependence.

Insulin-like growth factor I IGF-Ion the other hand was shown to play a pivotal role in cardiovascular physiology and aging [ 8 - 10 ]. In concert with insulin itself, IGF-I proved to be a positive regulator of cardiac growth and contractility under both physiological and pathological conditions [ 11 - 17 ].

Hypertension - Overview (causes, pathophysiology, investigations, treatment

Previous in vitro studies described a tight interplay between Mstn and IGF-I [ 318 - 20 ] and proposed that Mstn might be a cardiac chalone of IGF-I since cardiac growth induced by IGF-I was feed-backed by the overexpression of the negative growth regulator Mstn [ 21 ].

However, no studies have systematically analyzed the relevance of their possible reciprocal regulation at the gene expression level in healthy or failing human hearts.

Metrics details Abstract The burden of an epidemic is often characterized by death counts, but this can be misleading as it fails to acknowledge the age of the deceased patients. Years of life lost is therefore widely used as a more relevant metric, however, such calculations in the context of COVID are all biased upwards: patients dying from COVID are typically multimorbid, having far worse life expectation than the general population. These questions are quantitatively investigated using a unique Hungarian dataset that contains individual patient level data on comorbidities for all COVID deaths in the country.

Previous investigations focused only on Mstn protein activation that has been shown to be accelerated in hearts of dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathic patients DCM or ICM, respectively [ 22 ]. Moreover, no data exist in the literature about the expression pattern of Mstn in comparison with IGF-I and their receptors in various regions i.

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Given the different functional requirements LV and RV should cope with, and the markedly different development of these regions, one could assume that the gene expression pattern of Mstn and IGF-I signaling might show remarkable spatial differences under both physiological and pathological conditions. Methods Study design All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation institutional and national and with the Helsinki Declaration of Preparation of cardiac tissue Tissue samples of the right and left ventricular free walls and the inter-ventricular septum were taken at the time of explantation avoiding scarred, fibrotic, hypertension definition journal article adipose tissue, endocardium, epicardium or coronary vessels.

Irodalomjegyzék Antonovsky, A. Health, Stress and Coping.

Since some of the genes generally used for internal normalization in qRT-PCR contain several pseudogenes e. GAPDH, beta-actin of which co-amplification may compromise their reliability as reference genes [ 24 ], hipoxanthine-guanine phosphorybosyltransferase HPRT has been used as a single internal control gene in our experiments. Indeed, HPRT expression did not significantly change between different groups or heart regions data not shown.

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Cycle conditions were set as an initial denaturation step for 10 min at 95°C, followed by 45 cycles of 10 sec at 95°C for template denaturation, 10 sec for annealing phase at 58°C and 10 sec at 72°C for extension. Specificity of the PCR products was confirmed by melting curve analysis followed by the verification of the amplicon length on 1.

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